Indian National Thermal Power generation Scenario and Sources of Energy in India
At present, More than 65% of India's electricity generation capacity comes from thermal power generation plants by converting the chemical energy of the coal into electrical energy
Meeting the growing demand for electricity at an affordable cost
Ensuring the security of energy supply through the appropriate mix of sources
Minimize the environmental impacts
Compliance of climate change needs
Various Sources of Energy in India
Energy sources are classified as below
- Natural Gas
- SYN Gas (Derived from coal)
- Bio mass
- Geo thermal
- Coal is available in abundant quantity. Coal stock is sufficient for at least for the next 200 years.
- Reliable source of power 24x7, unlike renewable wind, solar
- Comparatively low capital cost investment than nuclear, solar, wind
- Cheapest continuous predictable energy
- Thermal plant technology and coal mining technology are well developed and matured.
- Release of CO2 leads to global warming
- Emission of harmful substances such as sox, nox, mercury, arsenic, acid rain causes health hazards to the surrounding population. However modern equipment have reduced the emission.
- Combustion of coal leaves behind ash for disposal.
- Coal mining leads to pollution of water and air surrounding mine and causes health hazards to the surrounding people.
- Easy to handle, store, transport.
- Due to high calorific value, less quantity of oil is required as compared to coal.
- CHP and AHP is not required
- Less availability, costly hence uneconomical
- Leads to an emission of Sox, Nox, and Co2 and proves hazardous to surrounding people.
- Half the emission of hazardous gases as compared to coal.
- Takes relatively less time for start up and load picking so useful for peak load.
- The construction period is less compare to coal.
Availability is not even adequate to meet its non-electricity requirements such as fertilizers etc.
- Cost is unaffordable.
Many gas-based plants are shut down due to nonavailability of gas.
- Clean fuel
- Less pollution
- Very Costly Fuel
- Upcoming technology
- Clean power
- 24x7 Power with large capacity unit rating
- Low fuel cost.
- Water is most desirable, reliable and environment friendly.
- Operating cost is low, after generating electricity water is used for agriculture. Water gets replenish due to rains.
- Time for start is very small. Start and stop is easy.
- Amount of power generated depends on altitude difference between dam and turbine so finding new places is problem.
- Construction of dam takes lot of time and money.
- In drought like situations water is to be preserved for drinking, agriculture, industries and power generation becomes last priority.
- Solar is safest source of Energy
- Clean (pollution free, waste free and noise free)
- Cost of generation is very high.
- Land acquisition is a challenge for farm project since land requirement is about 4.5 acre per MW
- When sun light is not there, need for other sources of energy is felt.
- Very low impact on environment (only low frequency noise)
- No byproduct
- When wind is not blowing, need for use of other sources of energy is felt
- Not reliable
Bio mass relates to energy created by organic matter such as vegetation which can be bagass, switch grass etc., which can be easily cultivated. Forest and agro residue, agriculture waste are also used as fuel. These technologies are promoted in rural areas to derive the energy from waste. Largest biomass plant in India is 20 MW in Rajasthan.
- Utilization of waste material reduces impact on disposal
- Cheap fuel
- Collecting waste in sufficient quantities is difficult.
- Emission of hazardous gases since fuel is burnt
- No impact on environment
- Very few sources available in India, as such no potential. India plans to set up experimental capacity of 2 MW in J&K.
- Needs no fuel, tides are predictable
- Technology is not matured.
- Barrage and reservoirs are required to be built which are very expensive
- Harmful to aquatic species
- Can provide power for 10 hrs a day